The Incredible M4 Drone Robot: A Multi-Modal Marvel

Meet the M4, a revolutionary robot that can fly like a drone, roll, walk, and even tumble. Crafted by some of the brightest minds in technology and engineering, this robot redefines adaptability by adjusting its body for eight different types of movements. But what's even more impressive? It can decide the best motion for the task at hand, all by itself.

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The brainchild of Mory Gharib, the Hans W. Liepmann Professor of Aeronautics and Bioinspired Engineering at Caltech, and Alireza Ramezani from Northeastern University, the M4 showcases exceptional locomotion capabilities.

“Our aim was to push the boundaries of robot locomotion by designing a system that showcases extraordinary mobility capabilities with a wide range of distinct locomotion modes. The M4 project successfully achieved these objectives,” notes Ramezani.

This groundbreaking work was recently highlighted in a paper published in Nature Communications on June 27. Imagine the M4 navigating unknown terrains. It may start rolling on its four wheels, its most efficient mode. Confronted by a boulder? No problem. The M4 would stand tall on two wheels to check out the land beyond. And if a ravine loomed ahead? Those wheels would transform into rotors, enabling the robot to soar over the obstacle and continue its journey.

“When encountering unknown environments, only robots that have the ability to repurpose their multi-modal components aided by can succeed,” says Gharib.

The M4's cutting-edge design makes this adaptability possible. When the robot needs to stand upright, it uses two wheels that fold up, while in-built propellers maintain balance. And for flying? All wheels retract, letting the propellers take charge.

Inspiration for the M4's design is rooted in the wonders of nature. Gharib and his team marveled at the chukar birds' ability to use their wings for leverage when climbing steep inclines.

They also studied the adaptability of sea lions, which utilize their flippers in diverse ways both on land and in water. It's these real-world examples of adaptability that spurred M4's unique design.

However, the M4 isn't just about diverse movement. It's also smart. Equipped with autonomous capabilities, the robot assesses complex environments and navigates them with ease. It has even successfully roamed the grounds of Caltech's campus during outdoor testing.

The M4 represents a leap forward in robotic design and intelligence. Its unique blend of versatility and smart decision-making holds promise for numerous applications, from transporting injured individuals to exploring the vastness of outer space. As we look to the future, robots like the M4 remind us of the endless possibilities in store.

Photo courtesy of Caltech.

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Haye Kesteloo
Haye Kesteloo

Haye Kesteloo is the Editor in Chief and Founder of, where he covers all drone-related news, DJI rumors and writes drone reviews, and, for all news related to electric vehicles. He is also a co-host of the PiXL Drone Show on YouTube and other podcast platforms. Haye can be reached at haye @ or @hayekesteloo.

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